The Psychological Effects of Marijuana Essay Cannabis sativa, a plant characterized with the psychoactive principle tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main component of marijuana. Cannabis or cannabinoids has a varied class of identified substances. Over 420 substances are known composing cannabinoids and over 60 of which are the class which contains some viable psychotropic effects of the plant. Tetrahydrocannabinol is the main active ingredients comprising 15 percent of marijuana. Marijuana, as a substance containing such active ingredient acts on the individual psyche that correlates to several psychological dysfunctions. Marijuana is considered as one of the most popular group of cannabis known as the psychodysleptic drugs of hallucinogens. In analyzing several peer reviews of the effects of marijuana use in reproduction, questions are raised on the appropriate methods by which causal inferences can be made. Acute and chronic adverse effects of the substance on the health and psychological functions of humans is highly dependent on the time and amount of marijuana consumption. In a literature supporting this claim, Wayne Hall explained in his paper entitled â€œA simplified logic of causal interferenceâ€, there lays several measurements taken to explain the association between adverse health conditions with marijuana use. It is very difficult to set criteria to analyze this phenomenon. Most scholarly journals has pointed out the effects of cannabis use, in the form of marijuana significantly effects the concentration of testosterone, estrogen and prolactin in plasma based on experiments conducted on animals. Clinical tests on humans still need to validate this claim. It is also important to note that marijuana use in women would have lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH). These changes in hormonal levels significantly affects the menstrual cycle, although it is noted that this could immediately stop once drug use is discontinued. Marijuana possessing the substance cannabinoid elicits its effects on body mechanisms through the endocannabinoid system. Gorzalka and Hill (2006) mentions that â€œlargely consistent results reveal that both man and woman exhibit adverse effects on sexual behavior depending on the dose and specific sexâ€. (Gorzalka Hill, 2006) This entails that there is a significant role played by the endocannabinoid system in human reproductive system. The agents of the substance distributed in the body system greatly affects that hypothalamus, testes and ovaries of humans as tested primarily on animals. In recent literature, according to the review, â€œpresence of cannabinoid receptors in the sperm within the uterus constitutes the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in the reproductive system and the maintenance of sexual activity.. â€. (Gorzalka Hill, 2006) The ability of the substance to affect changes in the reproductive mechanisms of humans can become a potential source of treatments for sexual related dysfunctions. On the other hand, researches on the effects of marijuana in women suggest that there is a consistent finding on its effects on the sexual behavior of women including other species. From Kolodny et al. (1974) findings of women have increased sexual enjoyment because of marijuana and other related substances, due to increase in physical sensitivity and responsiveness. Focusing on reproduction, mainly in pregnancy among marijuana users, the cannabinoids component of marijuana has good lipid solubility allows the substance to affect the placenta with ease. In a study of 12,000 women, 11 percent marijuana users have shorter gestation periods. This consequently affects longer deliveries, lower birth rates and higher rates of deformities in their offspring. It is also known based on scholarly journals that the behavior and cognitive functions of marijuana users and their child are affected by the substance cannabinoids. Cannabinoids compromise pregnancy among marijuana users because the reduction in the gonadotropins and ovarian steroids are compromised once the active ingredients infiltrate the uterus of the woman. The substance has a relatively high soluble ability which regulates for absorpotion in the entire body system. The cannabinoid receptor, inherent in the uterus exhibits the ability to function in the reproductive organ and synthesis of the AEA to levels comparable to the brain as in studies on the psychological effects of marijuana as a hallucinogen. This has been verified by Guo et al., (2005) following subsequent conclusions relating to this. Park et al., (2004) mentions that â€œthe adverse effects of cannabinoids on gestation.. raise the question of the natural role of the receptor in the system during pregnancy.â€ (Park et al., 2004) Supported by genetic experimentation and molecular findings, the system is said to â€œundergo changes during the progression of gestation in manner that is conducive to normal pregnancyâ€. (Gorzalka Hill, 2006) Findings of such research suggest that the environment with the cannabinoid receptor, in the endocannabinoid system, may determine the success rate of the gestation period. Maccarone et al., (2000, 2002) focused on this findings to determine the level of association between the success rate of a pregnancy and the influence of the endocannabinoid system. The findings of the research are a determinant in a possible treatment to infertility as such recommendations entail provisions for a high level of efficient endocannabinoid system shall entail an unsuccessful pregnancy for hopeful women. As a conclusion with these researches, both cannabinoids and the endocannabinoids system is â€œdetrimental to the reproductive process in females.â€ (Gorzalka Hill, 2006) To be able to achieve successful pregnancy, â€œdrugs which acts to increase FAAH activity through low concentration of the AEA levels, may be potentially used to improve fertility among womenâ€¦â€ (Gorzalka Hill, 2006) In a study to analyze marijuana effect on female sex hormones, some subjects observed yielded lowered prolactin levels in short durations and concentration that is not significantly lower than the normal level. Recent findings concludes that cannabis, have no significant effect on women in the general population. The effects of the substance even is concluded having significant effects on sex hormones and sex drives of users. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â In previous research, several attempts to validate the findings of Kolodny et al. in 1974 were made to asses the effects of marijuana use in the decrease of testosterone levels. Subsequently a supporting finding claimed that there is such temporary reduction to testosterone level immediately after marijuana use. It is important to note that numerous studies after which proved no reduction in testosterone levels even in high dosage of cannabinoids, studies generally about the male reproductive system also failed to validate the reduction of testosterone levels associated with marijuana use. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Kolodnyâ€™s and colleagues study in 1974 initiated following research on the reproductive components in male with regards to marijuana use. Then, it was concluded that frequent cannabis users had lower sperm counts that occasional users. However, lack of methodology is assessing the sexual activity of respondents were made prior to examination became one of the major criticism of the study. In a study testing the claim, observed men confined with high doses of cannabis have decreased sperm concentrations and sperm motility. However, the significant findings of the research have maintained that such levels are still within the normal sperm concentration and that slight difference can only be observed during the experiment. There still lacks the right evidence to conclude that marijuana use is related to infertility. In a study, more women who are marijuana users have approached experts to seek help with their infertility issues than non-users. However, when this hypothesis was tested, the difference between the two variables range from 61 to 53 percent and became lower when researchers imposed controlled lifestyle factors with infertility. There is also the common finding of no association between marijuana use and the risk of early pregnancy loss. Reviewed researches also indicated an association between rates of infertility and marijuana use, or there is such decrease in the reproductive capacity among men who are marijuana users. The attempt to associate reproduction inabilities with regards to marijuana use is still unsupported by evidence in the scientific community, and the attempt to associate regular marijuana use and its effects on reproductive hormones is still continued. Several prior researches suggest that doses of marijuana substance enhance sexual activity and behavior. The effects of cannabinoid receptors on male sexual behavior have been regarded as a significant factor in reducing ejaculatory threshold. Gorzalka Hill (2006) explained that as was observed in laboratory species, it â€œrequires fewer intromissions and shorter latency to attain ejaculation once sexual activity is initiatedâ€. This finding supports earlier assumptions made by some men that with marijuana use, sexual activity duration is increased. Although initial tests on the validity of such claims on the effects of marijuana substance in testicular function were made on laboratory species such as rats and mammals, the level of relationship between the specie and human relatedness is comparable in context of these results. Melis, Succu, Mascia and Argiolas (2004) suggest that findings on the cannabinoid receptors role in the reproductive system, its effect on the hypothalamus also proves an â€œinduction of penile erectionâ€. The research detailed the validity of other researches done in concluding that the receptor has an antagonistic property which in turn induce penile erections. Through these researches, data generated provides a background on how the endocannainoid system may have a profound role in regulating the processes associated with sexual response such as erection and ejaculation, consequently, that the system can also have a direct or indirect effect on specific sexual dysfunctions. In relation with this, following researches made by previous researchers, Wenger, Ledent, Csernus, and Gerendai (2001) tested previous claims of cannabinoid receptor activity in testis through demonstrating how cannabinoids regulates testosterone hiosynthesis. Gye, Kang, and Kang (2005) reviewed the former research and found cannabinoid receptor activity also â€œpresent in the luminal epithelium of seminiferous tubulesâ€. (Gye et al., 2005) Â Following the activities of the receptor in reproductive organs, Rossato, Ion, Popa, Ferigo, Clari and Foresta (2005) also attests to â€œthe evidence of the spermâ€™s possession of a functional cannobinoid receptorâ€ (Rossato et al., 2005) The authors of the study suggested that the human sperm consistent with this finding has reduced mitochondrial function and reduced sperm motility. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The diverse and recent reviews of experts on the psychological effects of marijuana use in reproduction suggest the strong correlation between the substancesâ€™ effect on the reproductive process and its physiology. The reviews made have increased the research thrust of the field and has been continuously evaluated for more than three decades. In the process, we learned that cannabis, the major substance influence marijuanaâ€™s effects is significantly detrimental to the reproductive system of both males and females. The use of marijuana interrupts normal bodily psychological processes because it inhibits a receptor that interferes with the â€œlevel of testosterone and fertility in men, and the ovulation and gestation in women.â€ (Gorzalka Hill, 2006) Reviewed literature until today still lacks evidence to support that sexual behavior is affected by marijuana use. As mentioned, men can either find benefit or compromise in sexual behavior when marijuana is used. Literature still lacks appropriate data to support the association because even with the possibility of increased sensitivity in terms of sexual arousal and responsiveness, marijuana can also adversely trigger the impairment of sexual motivation and drive that shall lead to sexual dysfunctions. Men are more sensitive to such changes in their hormones given the bodyâ€™s reaction of cannabidon, but recent findings suggests that females find more benefits with marijuana use because of its inhibitory effect. This effect increases the â€œlevel of sexual arousal and desire that may facilitate and enhance sexual activityâ€ as suggested by Gorzalka Hill (2006). (Gorzalka Hill, 2006). Although literature provides conclusions based on non-human testing, sampling non-human species gives a significant idea on how male react to the cannabinoid receptor and how women elicits sexual behavior after marijuana use. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Peer reviews on the topic has showed consistent trends and findings, however, to validate such claims, more research should be made to ensure the occurrence of such effects in the psychological behavior of individual that use marijuana. Researches should also determine the effects, if there is, of cannabinoid, the component of marijuana, in the fertility of both men and women. Knowing how the cannabinoid receptor reacts with other reproductive organs does not provide concrete proof as to how it affects the reproductive viability. It was also mentioned that there is proof that cannabinoid receptors impair the healthy function of the testicular system; however, more research should pursue to discover other possible receptors that can influence the reproductive process of humans. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â It is important to know viable factors that contribute to different sexual dysfunctions in the body. This is not only to benefit people, but also those who have struggled to understand their reproductive process. The analysis on the psychological effects of marijuana can help determine appropriate treatments and medications in sexual dysfunctions. It is importance with this advocate to study the endocannabinoid system thoroughly and accurately. This knowledge and attempt is critical in analyzing the reproductive behavior of agents that either benefits or adversely antagonize the reproductive process. Reference Gye, M., Kang, H. H., Kang, H. J. (2005). Expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 in Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â mouse testes. Archives ofAndrology, 51, 247-255. Guo, Y., Wang, H., Okamoto, Y, Ueda, N., Kingsley, P. J., Mamett, L. J., et al. (2005). Nacylphosphatidylethanolamine- hydrolyzing phospholipase D is an important determinant of uterine anandamide levels during implantation. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280, 23429-23432. Gorzalka, Boris B.; Hill, Matthew N. (2006). Cannabinoids, Reproduction and Sexual Behavior. Â Annual Review of Sex Research, Vol. 17, p132-161 Hall, W. (1987). A simplified logic of causal inference. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 21, 507-513, 1987. Kolodny, R. C, Masters, W H., Kolodner, R. M., Toro, G. (1974). Depression of plasma Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â testosterone levels after chronic intensive marihuana use. New England Journal of Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Medicine, 290, 872-874 Kolodny, R. C, Bauman, J. E., Biggs, M. A., Webster, S. K., Dornbush, R. L. (1977, July-August.). Endocrine and sexual effects of female chronic marihuana use. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Academy of Sex Research, Bloomington, IN. Maccarone, M., Valensise, H., Bari, M., Lazzarin, N., Romanini, C, Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Relation between decreased anandamide hydrolase concentrations in human lymphocytes and miscarriage. Lancet, 355, 1326-1329. Maccarone, M., Bisogno, T, Valensise, H., Lazzarin, N., Fezza, F, Manna, C, et al. (2002). Low fatty acid amide hydrolase and high anandamide levels are associated with failure to achieve an ongoing pregnancy after IVF and embryo transfer. Molecular Human Reproduction, 8, 188-195. Melis, M., Succu, S., Mascia, M., Sanna, F, Melis, T, Castelh, M., Argiolas, A. (2006). The cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR-141716A induces penile erection in male rats: Involvement of paraventricular glutamic acid and nitric oxide. Neuropharmacology, 50, 219-228. Park, B., McPartiand, J. M., Glass, M. (2004). Cannabis, cannabinoids and reproduction. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 70, 189-197. Rossato, M., Ion Popa, F, Feriggio, M., Clari, G., Foresta, C. (2005). Human sperm express cannabinoid receptor Cbj, the activation of which inhibits motility, acrosome reaction, and mitochondrial function. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 90, 984-991. Wenger, T, Ledent, C, Csernus, V., Gerendai, I. (2001). The central cannabinoid receptor inactivation suppresses endocrine reproductive functions. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 284, 363-368.
Slavery Before the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Essay What is the difference between slavery prior to the 14th century with that of slavery after the 15th century? Slavery existed long before the original slaves came to America. In fact, slavery prior to the 14th century differed greatly from slavery after the 15th century. Slavery was essential to many economic and social structures. For example, ancient Greece and Rome had many slaves. They differed from the form of slavery after the 15th century, though, due to the background of their slaves. Slavery was not necessarily racial or ethnic in origin prior to 15th century slavery. It was often captured enemies of war from many different places. However, when the Trans-Atlantic trade began, the majority of the slaves were African. Another difference is that the Africans were treated as objects, whereas prior to the 14th century, they were not legally the same as objects. Another difference is the jobs that they occupied. For example, the majority of the Athenian slaves were domestic servants, but the majority of African Americans had brutal and tedious jobs such working in fields all day. Slaves were also used to enforce religions, such as Islam. The Ottoman Empire forcibly converted approximately one million non-Muslims. However, the main purpose of Africans in the Americas was primarily as a work force. A significant difference was that of the Aztec slavery. For them, slavery was not considered hereditary. Therefore, a slaveâ€™s child was free. After the 15th century, a slaveâ€™s child was still considered a slave: it was hereditary. Slave trade was different before the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade began.